“What really makes a measurement of high value is a lot of uncertainty combined
with a high cost of being wrong.”
Hubbard, Douglas W. (2010).
How to Measure Anything: Finding the Value of Intangibles in Business
Reliable Integrated Operations
These pages are still under development
The materiel you'll find here is about the services I think should be provided by
a platform for integrated operations. One way to look at integrated operations is as
the natural evolution of SCADA, as a SCADA system always refers
to a system that coordinates, but does not control processes in real time.
I look at the communications technologies usually in place at an operator,
and how they may be used to provide the reliable services they are capable of, and
how to add desirable features that enhance the overall reliability of the communications
On the basis of those features I present an architecture that supports the development
of what I choose to call Reliable Integrated Operations. The internal architecture for
integration and communication is by far the most complicated part of the proposal,
but presents a simple and reliable programming model to the outside world.
It is based on design elements and software that has been successfully used by companies such as
Raytheon, Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, Siemens, Northrop, Ericsson, 3Com and many others
to create everything from the Ship Self-Defense System on the USS Ronald Reagan aircraft carrier
to television broadcasting and ATM switch signaling software.
A fair indication that we are looking at a mature, flexible and high performance technological approach.
But first a brief overview, because the rest of what you'll find here is presented from
the bottom up to illustrate that each layer of the proposed platform builds upon, and
takes into account, the capabilities of the technological foundation it builds on.
In the Oil & Energy sector, integrated operations (IO) refers to work processes and ways of
doing oil and gas exploration and production, facilitated by information and communication
The most distinguishing features of integrated operations are:
- Real-Time Process Supervision
- Multi-site work environment
- Multi-disciplinary teams
- Collaboration with focus on production
- Seeks to optimize the whole value chain
To be efficient, integrated operations relies heavily on communications and information technology.
Broadband connections can be used to share process data, video-conferencing and
video-surveillance of the platform. This makes it possible to move some personnel onshore and use
the existing human resources more efficiently.
Instead of having an expert in production optimization on duty at every platform, the expert
can be stationed onshore and be available for consultation for several offshore platforms.
Integrated operations also enables a team at an office in a different time zone to be consulting
the night-shift of a platform, so that no onshore workers need to be at work during the night.
Splitting the team between land and sea allows the operator to implement more efficient work processes
leveraging information and communication technology.
Capability Maturity Model Integration
CMMI is a framework used
to build process improvement systems.
Reliable Integrated Operations can be a valuable tool for:
- Causal Analysis and Resolution
- Organizational Performance Management
A platform for Integrated Operations would include features
that directly supported the following CMMI process areas:
- Decision Analysis and Resolution
- Measurement and Analysis
- Organizational Process Focus
- Process and Product Quality Assurance
- Risk Management
And provide integration with the existing services for:
- Configuration Management
- Organizational Process Definition
- Organizational Process Performance
- Project Monitoring and Control
- Project Planning
- Quantitative Project Management
- Requirements Management
CMMI helps organizations to improve their performance and capability to consistently
and predictably deliver the products, services, and goods their customers want,
when they want them and at a price they're willing to pay.
From a purely inwardly-facing perspective, CMMI helps companies
improve operational performance by lowering the cost of production,
delivery, and sourcing.
The Norwegian Armed Forces Datatjenester (Data Services) choose the CMMI for
Services as a business process improvement model when faced with challenge of
building one integrated unit with one unifying culture achieving:
- Clear articulation of the unit's mission, role and vision
- Enhanced focus on leadership
- Enhancing the units operational capabilities
- Enhancing leadership
- Enhancing sharing
A platform for Integrated operations should support change and continuous improvement.
TOGAF builds on CMMI and uses these
methods and techniques in relation to enterprise architecture.
Integrated operations is an aspect the Enterprise Architecture
Technology & infrastructure enables architecture to provide meaning to available information.
The reliability of the IO solution depends on how reliable the chosen technologies that makes up the
infrastructure are. As more control functions are transferred onshore, the reliability of
the integrated operations solution becomes mission critical to the operator.
Technologies that previously provided an adequate level of service, may no longer be applicable
as they are unable to provide the level of reliability required for the emerging uses
of integrated operations.
Integrated operations is an aspect of Enterprise Architecture (EA) for the process industry.
Enterprise architecture uses principles that has grown out of software architecture,
and applies them to management and organization science to provide a description
of the structure and work-flows of the enterprise. Enterprise architecture is an
emerging discipline based on four pillars:
- Business architecture: Defines the business strategy, governance,
organization, and business processes within the organization
- Applications architecture: Provides a high-level blueprint
for individual application/component systems, their relationships to
the business processes, the interactions between them,
and how they expose functionality for integration.
- Data architecture: Describes the structure of an organization's data assets
and the data management resources
- Technical architecture: Describes the hardware, software and network
infrastructure needed to support the applications
Business architecture includes people, responsibility, and interactions
Some EAFs', like TOGAF
is centered around systems of software and their evolution, but
the principles of EA are applicable to many other aspects of the enterprise.
Interdependencies give rise to numerous challenges that need to be taken into account to
build a reliable distributed platform for critical applications.
An interdependency is a bidirectional relationship between two infrastructures were the
state of each infrastructure influences the state of the other. Generally speaking ,
two infrastructures are interdependent if each is dependent on the other.
Integration & Interdependencies
The Oil & Energy sector provides vital services to the community,
and as operators establishes solutions for integrated operations onshore -
the requirements for stable operation of the onshore infrastructure takes on
aspects of supervisory offshore systems. It follows that the security
and reliability requirements associated with the previously offshore operations
has to propagate onshore along with the operations.
Infrastructure interdependencies can be categorized according to various dimensions in
order to facilitate their identification, understanding and analysis. As Integrated operations
aims to integrate the capabilities of several existing infrastructures supporting
management, process supervision & control and maintenance functionality
it's important that the architecture addresses interdependency issues. It's also
possible that a platform for Integrated Operations would be a
candidate for European Public-Private Partnership for Resilience
or similar efforts towards establishing a reference framework for governance of critical information infrastructures.
EU defines critical information infrastructure (CII) as those systems that
provide the resources upon which all the functions of
society depend, such as telecommunications,
transportation, energy, water supplies, healthcare,
emergency services, manufacturing and financial services,
as well as essential governmental functions.
Establishment Of a European Public-Private Partnership For Resilience (EP3R)
states that Enhancing security and resilience of CIIs is a joint responsibility which is shared among
a multiplicity of public and private stakeholders. The success of EP3R would depend on
the active participation and strong commitment of all relevant stakeholders.
Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) underlines
the need for protecting critical information infrastructures.
CIIP builds on five pillars:
- Preparedness and prevention
- Detection and response
- Mitigation and recovery
- Criteria for Critical Infrastructures
Research indicates that due to the increased number of interdependencies between systems in Integrated Operations,
the increased exploration of real time data and different organizational silos of competence between
IT and Automation; a security, or safety, incident in the ICT/SCADA systems may have complex and unanticipated consequences.
Types of interdependencies
Four classes of interdependencies have been distinguished: Physical, cyber, geographic, and logical.
Physical interdependencies arise from physical linkages or connections among
elements of the infrastructures. In this context disruptions and perturbations in one
infrastructure can propagate to other infrastructures.
Cyber interdependencies occur when the state of an infrastructure depends on
information transmitted through the information infrastructure. Such
interdependencies result from the increased use of computer-based information
systems such as SCADA systems, to support control, monitoring and management
Geographic interdependencies exist between two infrastructures when a local
environmental event can create state changes in both of them. This generally
occurs when the elements of the infrastructures are in close spatial proximity.
Logical interdependencies gather all interdependencies that are not physical, cyber
or geographic, caused for example by regulatory, legal or policy constraints
Any integration architecture for critical applications needs awareness of the
environment, including economic, legal/regulatory, technical,
social/political, business, public policy, security and health/safety issues.
These concern in particular the structural composition of the infrastructures
and their temporal dynamics.
State of Operation
In order to provide a reliable platform Integrated Operations it is necessary to
understand how the different components depend on each other taking into account the
different operation states of each component and how it affect the operational state of
other components. An platform for critical applications generally features several
performance levels and thus, several modes of operation can be distinguished,
ranging from full capacity to emergency situation.
These modes of service depend on the workload and level of stress of the system, the
different error and failure conditions that might occur and their severity, and the error
recovery and restoration actions that can be applied to cope with these failures.
Type of Failure
Three types of failures are of particular interest when analyzing interdependent infrastructures:
Cascading failures occur when a disruption in one infrastructure causes the failure
of one or more components in a second infrastructure.
Escalating failures occur when an existing failure in one infrastructure exacerbates
an independent disruption in another infrastructure, increasing its severity or the
time for recovery and restoration from this failure.
Common cause failures occur when two or more infrastructures are affected
simultaneously because of some common cause.
- Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture: A System of Patterns, Volume 1
- Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture: Patterns for Concurrent and Networked Objects, Volume 2
- Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture: Patterns for Resource Management, Volume 3
- Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture: A Pattern Language for Distributed Computing, Volume 4
- Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture
- Enterprise Integration Patterns Designing Building and Deploying Messaging Solutions
- US-CERT:Control Systems Security Program
- Managing emerging information security risks during transitions to Integrated Operations - Ying Qian, Yulin Fang, Martin Gilje Jaatun, Stig Ole Johnsen, Jose J. Gonzalez
- SINTEF Technology and Society:State of the art report – “SAFETY, SECURITY AND RESILIENCE IN INTEGRATED OPERATIONS” - Stig Ole Johnsen, Bjørn Axel Gran, Martin Gilje Jaatun, Sjur Larsen, Atoosa P-J. Thunem
- IFIP Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection
- IRRIIS – Integrated Risk Reduction of Information-based Infrastructure Systems
- Critical Information Infrastructure Protection
- Situation awareness and safety in offshore drill crews - Anne Sneddon, Kathryn Mearns, Rhona Flin
- Situation awareness and the cognitive management of complex systems, - Adams M, Tenney Y, Pew R
- A Computational Model of Attention/Situation Awareness - Jason S. McCarley, Christopher D. Wickens, Juliana Goh, and William J. Horrey
- Situational Awareness and Safety - Neville A. Stanton, Peter R. G. Chambers, John Piggott
- Converged Communications for Pipeline Operations and Security - Upendra H. Manyam
- Change patterns and change support features – Enhancing flexibility in process-aware information systems - Barbara Weber, Manfred Reichert, Stefanie Rinderle-Ma
- Deadline-based Escalation in Process-Aware Information Systems - Wil M.P. van der Aalst, Michael Rosemann, Marlon Dumas
- Designing fault tolerant networks to prevent poison message failure - Xiaojiang Du1, Mark A. Shayman, Ronald A. Skoog
- System Engineering and Software Exception Handling - Herbert Hecht
- SYSTEMS FAILURES:An approach to understanding what can go wrong - John Donaldson, John Jenkins
- Coordinated Atomic Actions
- Integrated Barrier Analysis in Operational Risk Assessment in Offshore Petroleum Operations - Jan Erik Vinnem, Terje Aven, Stein Hauge, Jorunn Seljelid, Gunnar Veire